Video Modeling (VM)
A student watches a video of a peer or adult completing a specific behavior or skill (such as greeting a friend or walking down the hallway in line). The video is watched by the student prior to the opportunity to complete the behavior him- or herself (such as before it is time for the class to walk down the hall to lunch). A goal is for the student to imitate the behavior in the video at the appropriate time.
Video Self-Modeling (VSM)
VSM is similar to video modeling, with the exception that the appropriate behavior in the video is modeled by the student him- or herself. In other words, a video is made of the student completing the behavior.
Example: Joseph refuses to walk back to the classroom after speech therapy, but generally has no problems when walking down the hall to recess. A video is made of Joseph walking nicely down the hall to recess (with the teacher praising his “nice walking” in the video). The video is watched after speech therapy, when it is time to walk back to the classroom, with the goal of Joseph imitating his own “nice walking” in the video.
Point-of-View Modeling (PVM)
A video is made of a task or steps of a behavior or event, with the video showing what the student will see when completing the task. The video is of the recorded steps in the process from the vantage point of the person completing the task. This allows a student to see a “picture” of how to complete a task.
Shukla-Mehta, S., Miller, T., & Callahan, K. J. (2010). Evaluating the effectiveness of video instruction on social and communication skills training for children with autism spectrum disorders: A review of the literature. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 25(1), 23-36.
Seeing Is Believing: Video Self-Modeling for People with Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities